阅读理解：Biologists have long maintained that two groups of pinnipeds, sea lions and walruses, are descended from a terrestrial bearlike animal, whereas the remaining group, seals, shares an ancestor with weasels.
But the recent discovery of detailed similarities in the skeletal structure of the flippers in all three groups undermines the attempt to explain away superficial resemblance as due to convergent evolution—the independent development of similarities between unrelated groups in response to similar environmental pressures.
Flippers may indeed be a necessary response to aquatic life; turtles, whales, and dugongs also have them.
But the common detailed design found among the pinnipeds probably indicates a common ancestor.
Moreover, walruses and seals drive themselves through the water with thrusts of their hind flippers, but sea lions use their front flippers.
If anatomical similarity in the flippers resulted from similar environmental pressures, as posited by the convergent-evolution theory, one would expect walruses and seals, but not seals and sea lions, to have similar flippers. (162 words)
1. The author implies that which of the following was part of the long-standing view concerning pinnipeds？
A Pinnipeds are all descended from a terrestrial bearlike animal.
B Pinnipeds share a common ancestor with turtles, whales, and dugongs
C Similarities among pinnipeds are due to their all having had to adapt to aquatic life.
2. The author implies which of the following about the fact that turtles, whales, and dugongs all have flippers？
A It can be explained by the hypothesis that turtles, whales, and dugongs are very closely related.
B It can be explained by the idea of convergent evolution.
C It suggests that turtles, whales, and dugongs evolved in separate parts of the world
D It undermines the view that turtles, whales, and dugongs are all descended from terrestrial ancestors.
E It is the primary difference between turtles, whales, and dugongs, on the one hand, and pinnipeds, on the other.
3. Select the sentence in the passage in which the author shows that the implication of the common view is contradicted by a new finding.
阅读理解：Present-day philosophers usually envision their discipline as an endeavor that has been, since antiquity, distinct from and superior to any particular intellectual discipline such as theology or science.
The basis for this view, however, lies in a serious misinterpretation of the past, a projection of modern concerns onto past events.
The idea of an autonomous discipline called “philosophy,” distinct from and sitting in judgment on such pursuits as theology and science turns out, on close examination, to be of quite recent origin.
When, in the seventeenth century, Descartes and Hobbes rejected medieval philosophy, they did not think of themselves, as modern philosophers do, as proposing a new and better philosophy, but rather as furthering “the warfare between science and theology.”
They were fighting, albeit discreetly, to open the intellectual world to the new science and to liberate intellectual life from ecclesiastical philosophy and envisioned their work as contributing to the growth, not of philosophy, but of research in mathematics and physics.
This link between philosophical interests and scientific practice persisted until the nineteenth century, when decline in ecclesiastical power over scholarship and changes in the nature of science provoked the final separation of philosophy from both.
The demarcation of philosophy from science was facilitated by the development in the early nineteenth century of a new notion, that philosophy‘s core interest should be epistemology, the general explanation of what it means to know something.
Modern philosophers now trace that notion back at least to Descartes and Spinoza, but it was not explicitly articulated until the late eighteenth century, by Kant, and did not become built into the structure of academic institutions and the standard self-descriptions of philosophy professors until the late nineteenth century.
Without the idea of epistemology, the survival of philosophy in an age of modern science is hard to imagine.
Metaphysics, philosophy‘s traditional core—considered as the most general description of how the heavens and the earth are put together—had been rendered almost completely meaningless by the spectacular progress of physics.
Kant, however, by focusing philosophy on the problem of knowledge, managed to replace metaphysics with epistemology, and thus to transform. the notion of philosophy as “queen of sciences” into the new notion of philosophy as a separate, foundational discipline: philosophy became “primary” no longer in the sense of “highest” but in the sense of “underlying”.
1.Which of the following best expresses the author‘s main point？
A.Philosophy‘s overriding interest in basic human questions is a legacy primarily of the work of Kant.
B.Philosophy was deeply involved in the seventeenth-century warfare between science and religion.
C.The set of problems of primary importance to philosophers has remained relatively constant since antiquity.
D.The status of philosophy as an independent intellectual pursuit is a relatively recent development.
E.The role of philosophy in guiding intellectual speculation has gradually been usurped by science.
2.The author of the passage implies which of the following in discussing the development of philosophy during the nineteenth century？
(A) Nineteenth-century philosophy took science as its model for understanding the bases of knowledge.
(B) The role of academic institutions in shaping metaphysical philosophy grew enormously during the nineteenth century.
(C) Nineteenth-century philosophers carried out a program of investigation explicitly laid out by Descartes and Spinoza.
(D) Kant had an overwhelming impact on the direction of nineteenth-century philosophy.
(E) Nineteenth-century philosophy made major advances in understanding the nature of knowledge.
3.The author suggests that Descartes‘ support for the new science of the seventeenth century can be characterized as
(A) pragmatic and hypocritical
(B) cautious and inconsistent
(C) daring and opportunistic
(D) intense but fleeting
(E) strong but prudent
4.With which of the following statements concerning the writing of history would the author of the passage be most likely to agree？
(A) History should not emphasize the role played by ideas over the role played by individuals.
(B) History should not be distorted by attributing present-day consciousness to historical figures.
(C) History should not be focused primarily on those past events most relevant to the present.
(D) History should be concerned with describing those aspects of the past that differ most from those of the present.
(E) History should be examined for the lessons it can provide in understanding current problems.
阅读理解：According to astronomer S.A. Phinney, kicking a rock hard enough to free it from Earth's gravity would require a meteorite capable of making a crater more than 60 miles across.
Moreover, even if Earth rocks were freed by meteorite impact, Mars's orbit is much larger than Earth's, so Phinney estimates that the probability of these rocks hitting Mars is about one-tenth as great as that of Mars's rocks hitting Earth.
To demonstrate this estimate, Phinney used a computer to calculate where 1,000 hypothetical particles would go if ejected from Earth in random directions.
He found that 17 of the 1,000 particles would hit Mars.
1.Which of the following, if true, would cast most doubt on Phinney's estimate of the probability of Earth rocks hitting Mars？
A Rather than going in random directions, about 25 percent of all particles ejected from Earth go in the same direction into space.
B Approximately 100 meteorites large enough to make a noticeable crater hit the Earth each year.
C No rocks of Earth origin have been detected on Mars.
D The velocity of rocks escaping from Earth's gravity is lower than the velocity of meteorites hitting the Earth.
E No craters more than 60 miles across have been found on Mars.
Although the insistence on balancing spending against tax revenues has contributed to the economy’s stagnation, unfortunately, the government does not seem likely to ___ this rigid policy.
B. persist in
Since it was committed to the idea of science as an international, politically neutral enterprise, the Royal Society of London refused to ___ members from enemy nations during world wars of the twentieth century.
Although field studies have linked inbreeding to declines among song sparrow populations, some researchers argue that, in nature, inbreeding proves ___ as a factor when compared with crushing blows from weather changes.
阅读理解：Excavations at a Mayan site have uncovered jewelry workshops located some distance from the center of the site on roads radiating outward from the center. Since the nobility lived only in the area of the center, archaeologists conclude that these workshops made jewelry, not for the nobility, but for a middle class that must have been prosperous enough to afford it.
1.The archaeologists' argument assumes which of the following about the artisans who worked in the workshops'
(A) They were themselves prosperous members of a middle class.
(B) They lived near their workshops.
(C) Their products were not made from the same materials as was jewelry for the nobility.
(D) They worked full-time at making jewelry and did not engage in farming
(E) They did not take the jewelry they had made in the workshops to clients who were members of the nobility.
While nurturing parents can compensate for adversity, cold or inconsistent parents may ___ it.求正确答案
Walnut Grove的市委提议选择ABC Waste，而不是EZ Disposal(它是过去十年中和Walnut Grove签约提供垃圾收集服务的机构)，因为EZ最近把他们每月的收费从$2000提高到了$2500，而ABC仍然是$2000。但市委是错误的，我们应该继续使用EZ。EZ每周收集两次垃圾，而ABC只收集一次。而且，EZ当前的卡车拥有量和ABC一样都是20辆，但它已定购了更多的车辆。最后，EZ还提供优越的服务：去年市镇调查中80%的回应者同意他们对于EZ的表现是"满意"的。
what should i do？求解GRE写作模拟题（4）Argument
You will have 30 minutes to plan and write a critique of an argument presented in the form. of a short passage. A critique of any other argument will receive a score of zero.
Analyze the line of reasoning in the argument. Be sure to consider what, if any, questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and, if evidence is cited, how well it supports the conclusion.
You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what additional information might help you better evaluate its conclusion. Note that you are NOT being asked to present your views on the subject.
GRE® readers who are college and university faculty will read your critique and evaluate its overall quality, based on how well you identify and analyze important features of the argument organize, develop, and express your critique of the argument support your critique with relevant reasons and examples control the elements of standard written English.
Before you begin writing, you may want to take a few minutes to evaluate the argument and to plan a response. Be sure to develop your ideas fully and organize them coherently, but leave time to read what you have written and make any revisions that you think are necessary.
Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument.
The following appeared in a letter sent by a committee of homeowners from the Deerhaven Acres to all homeowners in Deerhaven Acres.
"Seven years ago, homeowners in nearby Brookville community adopted a set of restrictions on how the community's yards should be landscaped and what colors the exteriors of homes should be painted. Since then, average property values have tripled in Brookville. In order to raise property values in Deerhaven Acres, we should adopt our own set of restrictions on landscaping and housepainting."