The customers should______their orders by phone or...
The customers should______their orders by phone or email.
The International Labor Organization has studied reports on workers privacy in nineteen industrial nations. The study shows that electronic observation is most common in the United States. Many employers are using computers, cameras, listening devices and telephones to observe their workers. In the 300 businesses investigated in the U. S. more than 20 percent said they search computer records and listen to voice mail or electronic mail of their employees. Voice mail is a system for recording messages. Electronic mail, also called E-mail is messages sent between computers. About 20 million American workers, from factory workers to highly paid engineers, may be under electronic observation. This does not include employers who listen to people using telephones on their jobs. The ILO study says that electronic observation is especially common in some industries, such as telecommunications, insurance and banking. It also says the use of cameras is increasing in factories and stores in Japan and the use of technology to observe workers has grown rapidly in many other European industrial nations since 1985. Workers and worker organizations have major objections to electronic observation. They say it violates human rights and destroys the feeling of trust between workers and employers, because some employers use it to punish workers without the workers knowing the reason. They say it also makes it easier to learn private information about their workers, and employers even have greater powers than law enforcement agencies to observe people. For example, police need court orders to listen to the telephone calls of suspected criminals, but no such order is required for a business that wants to listen to the phone calls of one of its workers. The United States Congress is considering a bill to restrict the uses of electronic observation in work places. Employers will be required to tell workers if they are being observed. Questions:
Whats the purpose of the study conducted by the International Labor Organization？
A．To find out which country is the most developed one in the world.
B．To see how the workers" privacy is protected by the different countries.
C．To learn what kinds of electronic observation are used in the world.
D．To investigate the situation of workers" privacy in 19 developed countries.
When anyone opens a current account at a bank, he is lending the bank money, repaying of which he may demand at any time. Primarily, the bank customer relationship is that of debtor and creditor—【C1】______ is which depending on whether the customers account is in credit or is overdrawn. However, 【C2】______addition to that basically simple concept, the bank and its customer owes a large number of obligations to one another. Many of these obligations can give【C3】______ to problems and complications but a bank customer, unlike, say, a buyer of goods, cannot complain that the law is loaded against him. The bank must body its customers【C4】______ , and not those of anyone else. When, for example, a customer first opens an account, he instructs the bank to debit his account【C5】______in respect of cheques drawn by himself. He gives the bank specimens of his【C6】______, and there is a very firm rule that the bank has no right or authority to pay out a customers money on a cheque on which its customers signature has been【C7】______ . It makes no【C8】______ that the forgery may have been a very skillful one: the bank must【C9】______ its customers signature. For this reason there is no risk to the customer in the modern practice, adopted by some banks, of printing the customers name on his cheques. 【C10】______this facilitates forgery, it is the bank that will lose, not the customer.
By the early 1950s, some business people began to recognize that efficient production and extensive promotion did not guarantee that customers would buy products. These businesses, and many others, found that they must first determine what customers want and then produce it, rather than make products and try to change customers needs to fit what is expected. As more organizations realized the importance of knowing customers needs, U. S. businesses entered the marketing era, one of market or customer orientations(取向, 方向). Orientation toward customer satisfaction has resulted in increased concern about ethics and social responsibility and brought about an expansion into global markets. Management at many organizations has realized that we are in the "Total Quality Era", in which improved product quality, and customer focus are major components of successful domestic and global operations. Because the marketing concept affects many parts of a businesss operations, and not just marketing, an organizations top management must adopt it wholeheartedly. High-level executives must incorporate the market orientation into their management philosophies so completely that customers become the organizations most important concern. Managements second major task is to restructure the organization. To satisfy customers objectives as well as its own, a company must coordinate all activities. To achieve this, the internal operations and overall objectives of one or more departments may need restructuring. If the head of the marketing unit is not a member of the organizations top-level management, he or she should be. Some departments may have to be abolished and new ones created. Implementing(实施， 执行)the marketing concept demands the support not only of top management, but also of managers and staff at all levels. The transformation to an organization with a market orientation takes time. In the short run, a firm may experience the need to retain employees, financial constraints, limits on technology, capital equipment limitations, and prohibitive union work rules. Even when an information system is established and the company reorganized, the firms new marketing approach may not work perfectly. First, a firms ability to satisfy customers needs for a particular product is limited. In a mass production economy, most business organizations cannot tailor products to fit the exact needs of each customer. Second, a company may be unable to learn what customers want, and when it does correctly identify customers needs, it often has a hard time developing a product that satisfies those needs. Third, by striving to satisfy one segment(部分，部门)of society, a firm sometimes dissatisfies other segments. Producers of tobacco currently face this situation. Fourth, a company may have trouble maintaining employee morale during any restructuring to coordinate the activities of various departments.
By the early 1950s, business people began to realize______.
A．the importance of efficient production
B．the necessity of extensive promotion
C．the need to try to change customers" needs
D．the significance of knowing customers" needs