By the early 1950s, some business people began to...
By the early 1950s, some business people began to recognize that efficient production and extensive promotion did not guarantee that customers would buy products. These businesses, and many others, found that they must first determine what customers want and then produce it, rather than make products and try to change customers needs to fit what is expected. As more organizations realized the importance of knowing customers needs, U. S. businesses entered the marketing era, one of market or customer orientations(取向, 方向). Orientation toward customer satisfaction has resulted in increased concern about ethics and social responsibility and brought about an expansion into global markets. Management at many organizations has realized that we are in the "Total Quality Era", in which improved product quality, and customer focus are major components of successful domestic and global operations. Because the marketing concept affects many parts of a businesss operations, and not just marketing, an organizations top management must adopt it wholeheartedly. High-level executives must incorporate the market orientation into their management philosophies so completely that customers become the organizations most important concern. Managements second major task is to restructure the organization. To satisfy customers objectives as well as its own, a company must coordinate all activities. To achieve this, the internal operations and overall objectives of one or more departments may need restructuring. If the head of the marketing unit is not a member of the organizations top-level management, he or she should be. Some departments may have to be abolished and new ones created. Implementing(实施， 执行)the marketing concept demands the support not only of top management, but also of managers and staff at all levels. The transformation to an organization with a market orientation takes time. In the short run, a firm may experience the need to retain employees, financial constraints, limits on technology, capital equipment limitations, and prohibitive union work rules. Even when an information system is established and the company reorganized, the firms new marketing approach may not work perfectly. First, a firms ability to satisfy customers needs for a particular product is limited. In a mass production economy, most business organizations cannot tailor products to fit the exact needs of each customer. Second, a company may be unable to learn what customers want, and when it does correctly identify customers needs, it often has a hard time developing a product that satisfies those needs. Third, by striving to satisfy one segment(部分，部门)of society, a firm sometimes dissatisfies other segments. Producers of tobacco currently face this situation. Fourth, a company may have trouble maintaining employee morale during any restructuring to coordinate the activities of various departments.
By the early 1950s, business people began to realize______.
A．the importance of efficient production
B．the necessity of extensive promotion
C．the need to try to change customers" needs
D．the significance of knowing customers" needs
Chinese fridge manufacturer Wang Guoduan, a man with only 7 years of formal education, is proving you dont have to be a Netrepreneur to take on the world. His is a more old-fashioned success story. Until Wang visited the Guangzhou trade fair in 1983, he had never even seen a fridge. At the time, he was managing a decrepit, state-owned rice-cooker factory in the Guangdong province backwater of Rongqi(pop. 60 000). But today his township enterprise is Chinas largest and most successful refrigerator maker. Last year his Guangdong Kelon Electrical Holdings Co. sold $ 677 million of refrigerators, air-conditioners and other "white goods", commanding nearly a quarter of the domestic market. Already popular in the U. S. , Kelon products are breaking into Europe and Southeast Asia. Now, with China poised to enter the World Trade Organization, Wang has a make-or-break opportunity. WTO market liberalization could increase competitive pressures—harming firms like Kelon—experts warn. But Kelon executives counter that the firm is already competing on level terms against U. S. companies like Whirlpool, which manufactures in China, and will also benefit from falling tariffs in its export markets. "We just have to become even smarter," says Wang. Like many other non-Internet Chinese companies, Kelon will soon find out if its older model still works in a new economy. Until now the company has been as hot as a fridge maker can be. Kelon has repeatedly won awards as the best-run and most investor-friendly company in China, ahead of such leaders as China Telecom and computer giant Legend. Prominent analysts have declared that "Kelon is the best managed company in China. " That helps explain the companys stellar returns: since 1994, profit attributable to shareholders has risen by more than 500%. Last year Kelon produced 2. 2 million, making it one of the worlds top manufacturers. But the boom may be approaching its end as the market for refrigerators in Chinas cities nears saturation. A sluggish economy and increased competition brought about by economic reforms are squeezing profit margins. Despite record sales last year, the company reported a 1.3% fall in operating profit. It has responded by targeting Chinas secondary cities and rural areas, where refrigerators are so rare that many owners proudly display them in the living room, not the kitchen. The company has also branched out into air-conditioners, which it hopes will become Chinas next consumer-appliance fad. Says Rachel Tsang of Vickers Ballas Securities in Hong Kong, "What Kelon has done is revolutionary. The future may depend on whether it can start another revolution. " And theres no reason to suppose it wont, if Wang Guoduan and Kelon keep on humming.
We can infer from the first paragraph of this passage that______.
A．if you want to be a successful man you should spend much time in school
B．Wang Guoduan had learned much about fridge before becoming famous
C．Guangdong Kelon Electrical Holdings Co. is an enterprise owned by state
D．Kelon products have become famous both at home and abroad
In 1904 A. P. Giannini became a board member of a San Francisco bank. He discovered that most banks cared only for the wealthy, powerful, and well-born. The "little fellows" had to hide their savings under a mattress (床垫) and borrow from loan sharks at high rates. Yet A. P. knew these people were struggling to make something of their lives. A. P. argued with the banks directors to change their policies. They refused. So he stormed out saying, "Ill start my own bank!" And on October 17, 1904, Bank of Italy later renamed Bank of America opened its doors. According to Giannini, "There isnt any good reason why a bank should have the temperature of a fish market. When you walked into some of them you felt as if youd got into a funeral parlor. I think what I am most proud of is anything I may have done to help with the humaniza-tion of banking. " At first, bankers looked down their noses at "the baby bank" and its methods. They felt that going out to ask for new business was distasteful especially from immigrants, farmers, and wage-earners. But A. P. and bank employees went door-to-door explaining to people what a bank could do for them and inviting them to become customers. They did. And Bank of Italy grew. Said Giannini, "The old idea of a banker was that he must wear a silk hat and shut himself up in fancy quarters. He thought he couldnt ask for business. If business is worth having, its worth going after. It helps to get up earlier than your competitor, and to keep looking for new ways to do more good business. " A former bank vice-president remembers that "A. P. was always available. People would often come to his desk, just to say hello. " Recalls another bank employee: "He wanted to make sure the customer was always our boss, that we were working for the customer. "
The term "loan sharks" (Line 3, Para. 1) refers to______.
A．people who lend money at illegal rates of interest
B．banks which care only for influential persons
C．banks which keep money for the poor but charge high fees
D．people who possess wealth and power
In restructuring the organization, the top-level management should______.
A．include the head of the marketing department
B．support wholeheartedly the implementation of the marketing concept
C．coordinate activities of all departments to ensure market orientation
D．all of the above