Today concern for the environment extends into suc...

Today concern for the environment extends into such areas as chemical pollution of the air we breathe and the water we drink, strip mining, dam and road building, noise pollution, offshore oil drilling, nuclear energy, waste disposal, the use of aerosol cans and nonreturnable beverage containers and a host of other issues. In fact, there is hardly a realm of national life that is not touched by the controversy that often pits those who style. themselves environmentalists against proponents of economic growth in our energy-consuming society. The problem is to balance the needs of the environment against those of the economy or consumers trying to cope with the high cost of living without destroying the earth on which we all depend. In this sense, it is important how nations should go about making environmental policies choice. Public awareness education on environment should be enhanced among citizens.



  • Our planet is like a bit spaceship. Our atmosphere acts【51】a shield against harmful radiation and space debris.【52】holds the air and people on the spaceship,【53】everything doesn't float away. Each of us is an astronaut and our spaceship, the earth, provides our food and water. The sun is our energy【54】and without it we would not be able to survive.

    【55】every spaceship, the earth is a closed system. The only thing we receive from the outside is energy from the sun. Everything else must be used【56】again. We astronauts don't seem to realize that this spaceship is the【57】one we've got. We【58】its resources and waste the energy the plants have stored from the sun. If we【59】our spaceship, we will destroy ourselves as well. Maybe if we look at the universe which surrounds us, we will appreciate our own spaceship more and take【60】care of it.





  • On cold days in Delhi, the poor light bonfires (篝火) of tyres, trees and rags whose fumes mix with the exhaust from the citys 2 million vehicles to form. a thick smog. On most days in Mexico City, a blanket of pollution cuts off views of the surrounding mountains. On one famous occasion it got so bad that birds fell dead out of the sky on to the Zocalo, the citys main square. Throughout the developing world, smogs in many big cities are getting worse as more people use cars and more manufacturing firms are belching out (喷出) pollution. Congestion is on the rise, too- according to one estimate, a car in Bangkok now spends the equivalent of 40 days a year stuck in traffic. The air in Asias cities, like the water in its rivers, is particularly unhealthy, containing levels of dust and smoke several times higher than in the rich countries cities. Environmentalists in the developed world also worry about air pollution in poorer countries, not just out of the goodness of their hearts but because they fear it may affect their own backyard. Carbon-dioxide emissions, thought to be the cause of global warming, are growing particularly fast in developing countries. So are emissions of sulphur dioxide, blamed for acid rain, which sometimes falls hundreds of miles from the source of the pollution. But the harm that air pollution causes in the developing countries themselves is much more serious and immediate. The biggest concern are indoor air pollution, lead emissions and small particles. Indoor pollution in poor countries is not much talked about, but it is often as damaging to health as smoking cigarettes. Around a third of all energy consumed in developing countries comes from wood, crop residues and dung, which are often burnt in poorly designed stoves within ill-ventilated (通风很差的) huts. Studies of women in India and Nepal exposed to smoke from such fuels show that their death rates from chronic respiratory disease are similar to those of heavy smokers. Lead has long been known to be dangerous in large doses. But only since the 1970s have scientists been aware that relatively small quantities of lead in the bloodstream can be harmful to humans. In particular, many studies show a correlation between levels of lead in childrens blood and lower IQ scores, hearing loss and hyperactivity (活动过度). But the kind of air pollution thought to cause the most damage to human health in developing countries is that from small particles. Caused by vehicle exhausts, coal-burning smoke from factories and dust stirred up by vehicles, these particles easily find their way into peoples lungs. Studies the world over have shown a strong positive correlation between small particles in the air and death rates.

    The first paragraph is engaged in______.

    A.describing several world famous cities in developing countries

    B.illustrating the seriousness of environmental problems in developing countries

    C.drawing a picture about the seriously polluted future world

    D.comparing the pollution problems in developed and developing countries


  • Pollution caused by motor vehicles can kill more people a year than road accidents. The World Health Organization(WHO)has found that after studying【C1】______ countries— Austria, France and Switzerland. Long-term【C2】______ to exhaust fumes caused the premature death of 21 000 people【C3】______ respiratory and heart disease in the three countries,【C4】______ with nearly 10 000 deaths from accidents, WHO【C5】______ said last week. The report was prepared for【C6】______ to a conference of 70 environment and health ministers being organized by the United Nations agency in London. "The growing evidence【C7】______ air pollution is causing a major health burden adds to the effects of road traffic through noise, accidents and barriers【C8】______ cycling and walking, and we need to approach this head on," said Carlos Dora, a doctor with the WHOs European center for environment and health. "We are paying a huge【C9】______ for this excessive road transport; with our money and with our health. " One-third of pollution from fine particles which congest the lungs was【C10】______ by motor vehicles, rising to one-half in cities, the WHO found.